The presence of allergies in the industrialised world has significantly increased in the past few decades. In the skin, this manifests itself through eczema, characterised by itchy and inflamed skin.
In 1989, the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ was postulated, which links reduced pathogen contact during childhood to a skewed immune system development – meaning a too clean environment can later lead to hypersensitivity and allergic reactions.
To explain this hypothesis on a molecular level: exposure to a pathogen can lead to two different immune response paths. The Type 1 T helper cell (Th1) activates macrophages as a defence against the pathogen. In contrast, the Type 2 T helper (Th2) path stimulates Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody production in B cells, ultimately leading to an allergic sensitisation. In individuals suffering from allergies, this immune balance is skewed towards the Th2 path. To correct this, the Th2 response has to be repressed by activation of the Th1 path.
CM-Glucan Forte – designed to rebalance the skin
CM-Glucan Forte (INCI: Magnesium Carboxymethyl Beta-Glucan) is a modified water-soluble polysaccharide (β-(1,3)-Glucan) derived from cell walls of baker's yeast containing magnesium as a counterion to increase stability. β-(1,3)-Glucan has been reported to bind the Toll-like receptor TLR2 on keratinocytes, which was shown to play an important role in the activation of the Th1 response. This immune ‘training’ by CM-Glucan Forte could rebalance the skin and combat irritation.
CM-Glucan Forte reduces the inflammatory response in AD models
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a skin disease associated with chronic skin inflammation and eczema characterised by itchy dry skin with an impaired barrier function. This poses an increased risk for bacterial infection, mainly with the organism Staphylococcus aureus. As with other allergies, AD has a higher prevalence in individuals growing up in more sanitised environments and the immune response in AD is skewed towards Th2 activation.
Different in vitro studies demonstrated that CM-Glucan Forte is able to reduce the inflammatory responses typical for Th2 overactivation in AD: CM-Glucan Forte suppresses IgE production by stimulated B cells by 26%. Additionally, CM-Glucan Forte decreases expression of the AD marker cytokine IL-8 by 53% in a reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) AD model. Furthermore, CM-Glucan Forte inhibits adhesion of S. aureus to RHE in a concentration-dependent manner.
CM-Glucan Forte restores skin barrier, hydration and wellbeing
In order to test the efficacy of CM-Glucan Forte in vivo, a double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study was performed with volunteers diagnosed with AD. Topical application of CM-Glucan Forte in a cream formulation for 28 days significantly increased skin hydration and smoothness and reduced TEWL, resulting in an improved skin barrier function and less irritated skin.
CM-Glucan Forte is an active designed to rebalance the skin’s immune system by repressing the Th2 path, which can be overactive in our modern, clean world. As a result, CM-Glucan Forte improves the skin barrier and hydration to help those suffering from oversensitised skin to feel more comfortable in their own skin.
Mibelle AG Biochemistry, Stand D18